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目錄.......................................................................................................................................... 1
譯者的話............................................................................................................................. 14
第一周概貌............................................................................................................................. 16
從這里開始............................................................................................................. 16
第一天SQL 簡介.................................................................................................................. 17
SQL 簡史................................................................................................................ 17
數據庫簡史............................................................................................................. 17
設計數據庫的結構................................................................................................... 21
SQL 總覽......................................................................................................... 23
流行的SQL 開發工具....................................................................................... 24
SQL 在編程中的應用........................................................................................ 27
第二天查詢— — SELECT 語句的使用................................................................................... 30
目標.................................................................................................................... 30
背景................................................................................................................. 30
一般的語法規則............................................................................................... 30
你的第一個查詢............................................................................................... 33
總結.................................................................................................................... 37
問與答................................................................................................................. 38
校練場.................................................................................................................... 38
練習.................................................................................................................... 39
第三天表達式條件語句與運算.......................................................................................... 40
第四天函數對數據的進一步處理....................................................................................... 60
目標.................................................................................................................... 60
匯總函數................................................................................................................. 60
COUNT............................................................................................................ 61
SUM ................................................................................................................ 61
AVG................................................................................................................. 63
MAX................................................................................................................ 63
MIN................................................................................................................. 64
VARIANCE...................................................................................................... 65
STDDEV.......................................................................................................... 66
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日期/時間函數......................................................................................................... 66
ADD_MONTHS................................................................................................ 67
LAST_DAY...................................................................................................... 68
MONTHS_BETWEEN....................................................................................... 69
NEW_TIME...................................................................................................... 70
NEXT_DAY...................................................................................................... 71
SYSDATE......................................................................................................... 72
數學函數................................................................................................................. 72
ABS ................................................................................................................. 73
CEIL 和FLOOR ............................................................................................... 73
COS COSH SIN SINH TAN TANH........................................................ 73
EXP................................................................................................................. 75
LN and LOG..................................................................................................... 75
MOD................................................................................................................ 76
POWER............................................................................................................ 77
SIGN ............................................................................................................... 77
SQRT ............................................................................................................... 78
字符函數................................................................................................................. 79
CHR................................................................................................................. 79
CONCAT .......................................................................................................... 79
INITCAP.......................................................................................................... 80
LOWER 和UPPER ........................................................................................... 81
LPAD 與RPAD................................................................................................. 82
LTRIM 與RTRIM............................................................................................. 83
REPLACE ........................................................................................................ 84
SUBSTR........................................................................................................... 85
TRANSLATE.................................................................................................... 88
INSTR ............................................................................................................. 88
LENGTH.......................................................................................................... 89
轉換函數................................................................................................................. 89
TO_CHAR........................................................................................................ 90
TO_NUMBER................................................................................................... 91
其它函數................................................................................................................. 91
GREATEST 與LEAST...................................................................................... 91
USER............................................................................................................... 92
總結........................................................................................................................ 92
問與答.................................................................................................................... 93
校練場.................................................................................................................... 93
練習........................................................................................................................ 94
第五天SQL 中的子句........................................................................................................... 95
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目標.................................................................................................................... 95
WHERE 子句.......................................................................................................... 96
STARTING WITH子句............................................................................................ 98
ORDER BY 子句..................................................................................................... 99
GROUP BY 子句....................................................................................................104
HAVING 子句.........................................................................................................109
子句的綜合應用.....................................................................................................112
總結.......................................................................................................................117
問與答...................................................................................................................117
校練場...................................................................................................................117
練習.......................................................................................................................118
第六天表的聯合..................................................................................................................119
介紹.......................................................................................................................119
在一個SELECT 語句中使用多個表.........................................................................119
正確地找到列..................................................................................................123
等值聯合................................................................................................................124
不等值聯合............................................................................................................129
外部聯合與內部聯合..............................................................................................130
表的自我聯合.........................................................................................................132
總結.......................................................................................................................134
問與答...................................................................................................................134
校練場...................................................................................................................134
練習.......................................................................................................................135
第七天子查詢內嵌的SQL 子句........................................................................................136
目標...................................................................................................................136
建立一個子查詢.....................................................................................................136
在子查詢中使用匯總函數.......................................................................................140
子查詢的嵌套.........................................................................................................141
相關子查詢............................................................................................................144
EXISTS ANY ALL 的使用.................................................................................147
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總結.......................................................................................................................151
問與答...................................................................................................................151
校練場...................................................................................................................152
練習...................................................................................................................153
第一周回顧............................................................................................................................154
預覽.......................................................................................................................154
第二周概貌............................................................................................................................155
這一周都講些什么..................................................................................................155
第八天操作數據..................................................................................................................156
目標.......................................................................................................................156
數據操作語句.........................................................................................................156
插入語句................................................................................................................157
INSERT VALUES 語句.....................................................................................157
INSERT SELECT 語句.....................................................................................161
UPDATE語句........................................................................................................163
DELETE 語句.........................................................................................................166
從外部數據源中導入和導出數據.............................................................................169
Microsoft Access ..............................................................................................170
Microsoft and Sybase SQL Server ......................................................................171
Personal Oracle7...............................................................................................171
總結.......................................................................................................................172
問與答...................................................................................................................172
校練場...................................................................................................................173
練習.......................................................................................................................173
第九天創建和操作表...........................................................................................................174
目標...................................................................................................................174
CREATE DATABASE 語句......................................................................................174
建立數據庫時的選項.......................................................................................175
設計數據庫.....................................................................................................176
建立數據字典..................................................................................................176
建立關鍵字段..................................................................................................177
CREATE TABLE 語句.............................................................................................178
表名................................................................................................................179
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FIRST NAME..................................................................................................179
空值屬性.........................................................................................................180
唯一屬性.........................................................................................................181
表的存儲與尺寸的調整....................................................................................183
用一個已經存在的表來建表.............................................................................184
ALTER TABLE 語句...............................................................................................185
DROP TABLE 語句.................................................................................................186
DROP DATABASE語句..........................................................................................187
總結.......................................................................................................................188
問與答...................................................................................................................188
校練場...................................................................................................................189
練習.......................................................................................................................190
第10 天創建視圖和索引.......................................................................................................191
目標.......................................................................................................................191
使用視圖................................................................................................................192
列的重命名.....................................................................................................196
SQL 對視圖的處理過程...................................................................................197
在SELECT 語句使用約束................................................................................201
在視圖中修改數據...........................................................................................201
在視圖中修改數據的幾個問題.........................................................................203
通用應用程序的視圖.......................................................................................204
刪除視圖語句..................................................................................................207
使用索引................................................................................................................207
什么是索引..................................................................................................207
使用索引的技巧..............................................................................................212
對更多的字段進行索引....................................................................................212
在創建索引時使用UNIQUE 關鍵字.................................................................214
索引與歸并.....................................................................................................216
群集簇的使用...........................................................................................217
總結.......................................................................................................................218
問與答................................................................................................................219
校練場...................................................................................................................219
練習...................................................................................................................220
第11 天事務處理控制.........................................................................................................221
目標...................................................................................................................221
事務控制................................................................................................................221
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銀行應用程序..................................................................................................222
開始事務處理..................................................................................................223
結束事務處理..................................................................................................225
取消事務處理..................................................................................................228
在事務中使用保存點.......................................................................................231
總結.......................................................................................................................234
問與答...................................................................................................................234
校練場...................................................................................................................235
練習.......................................................................................................................235
第12 天數據庫安全............................................................................................................236
前提數據庫管理員..............................................................................................236
流行的數據庫產品與安全.......................................................................................237
如何讓一個數據庫變得安全....................................................................................237
Personal Oracle7 與安全..........................................................................................238
創建用戶.........................................................................................................238
創建角色.........................................................................................................240
用戶權限.........................................................................................................242
為安全的目的而使用視圖................................................................................247
總結.......................................................................................................................251
問與答...................................................................................................................252
校練場...................................................................................................................252
練習.......................................................................................................................253
第13 天高級 SQL.................................................................................................................254
目標...................................................................................................................254
臨時表...................................................................................................................254
Title ................................................................................................................257
游標.......................................................................................................................259
創建游標.........................................................................................................260
打開游標.........................................................................................................260
使用游標來進行翻閱.......................................................................................261
測試游標的狀態..............................................................................................262
關閉游標.........................................................................................................263
游標的適用范圍..............................................................................................264
創建和使用存貯過程..............................................................................................265
在存貯過程中使用參數....................................................................................267
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刪除一個存貯過程...........................................................................................269
存貯過程的嵌套..............................................................................................270
設計和使用觸發機制..............................................................................................272
觸發機制與事務處理.......................................................................................273
使用觸發機制時的限制....................................................................................275
觸發機制的嵌套..............................................................................................275
在選擇語句中使用更新和刪除................................................................................275
在執行前測試選擇語句....................................................................................276
嵌入型SQL............................................................................................................277
靜態SQL 與動態SQL.....................................................................................277
使用SQL 來編程....................................................................................................279
總結.......................................................................................................................280
問與答...................................................................................................................280
校練場...................................................................................................................280
練習.......................................................................................................................281
第14 天動態使用SQL ........................................................................................................282
目標.......................................................................................................................282
快速入門................................................................................................................282
ODBC .............................................................................................................282
Personal Oracle 7..............................................................................................283
InterBase SQL ISQL ...................................................................................283
Visual C++ ......................................................................................................284
Delphi.............................................................................................................284
設置.......................................................................................................................284
創建數據庫............................................................................................................285
使用MS QUERY 來完成鏈接..................................................................................290
將VISUAL C++與SQL 結合使用...........................................................................292
將DELPHI 與SQL 結合使用..................................................................................296
總結.......................................................................................................................302
問與答...................................................................................................................303
校練場...................................................................................................................303
練習.......................................................................................................................303
第二周回顧............................................................................................................................304
第三周概貌............................................................................................................................305
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應用你對SQL 的知識.............................................................................................305
第15 天對SQL 語句優化以提高其性能...............................................................................306
目標.......................................................................................................................306
讓你的SQL 語句更易讀.........................................................................................307
全表掃描................................................................................................................308
加入一個新的索引..................................................................................................309
在查詢中各個元素的布局.......................................................................................309
過程................................................................................................................311
避免使用OR...................................................................................................311
OLAP 與OLTP 的比較...........................................................................................313
OLTP 的調試...................................................................................................313
OLAP 的調試..................................................................................................314
批量載入與事務處理進程.......................................................................................314
刪除索引以優化數據的載入....................................................................................316
經常使用COMMIT 來讓DBA 走開........................................................................316
在動態環境中重新生成表和索引.............................................................................317
數據庫的調整.........................................................................................................319
性能的障礙............................................................................................................322
內置的調整工具.....................................................................................................323
總結.......................................................................................................................323
問與答...................................................................................................................324
校練場...................................................................................................................324
練習.......................................................................................................................324
第16 天用視圖從數據字典中獲得信息................................................................................326
目標.......................................................................................................................326
數據字典簡介.........................................................................................................326
用戶的數據字典.....................................................................................................327
數據字典中的內容..................................................................................................327
Oracle 的數據字典...........................................................................................328
Sybase 的數據字典..........................................................................................328
ORACLE 數據字典的內部結構...............................................................................328
用戶視圖.........................................................................................................328
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系統數據庫管理員視圖....................................................................................336
數據庫對象.....................................................................................................339
數據庫的生長..................................................................................................343
動態執行視圖..................................................................................................347
總結.......................................................................................................................349
問與答...................................................................................................................349
校練場...................................................................................................................350
練習.......................................................................................................................350
第17 天使用SQL 來生成SQL 語句....................................................................................351
目標.......................................................................................................................351
使用SQL 來生成SQL 語句的目的..........................................................................351
幾個SQL*PLUS 命令.............................................................................................352
SET ECHO ON/OFF.........................................................................................353
SET FEEDBACK ON/OFF................................................................................353
SET HEADING ON/OFF ..................................................................................353
SPOOL FILENAME/OFF..................................................................................353
START FILENAME..........................................................................................354
ED FILENAME................................................................................................354
計算所有的表中的行數...........................................................................................354
為多個用戶賦予系統權限.......................................................................................359
將你的表的權限賦予其它的用戶.............................................................................361
在載入數據時解除對數的約束................................................................................363
一次創建多個同義字..............................................................................................364
為你的表創建視圖..................................................................................................368
在一個計劃中清除其所有的表的內容......................................................................369
使用SQL 來生成SHELL 腳本................................................................................371
再建表和索引.........................................................................................................372
總結.......................................................................................................................373
問與答...................................................................................................................373
校練場...................................................................................................................373
練習.......................................................................................................................374
第18 天PL/SQL 簡介..........................................................................................................376
目標.......................................................................................................................376
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入門.......................................................................................................................376
在PL/SQL 中的數據類型........................................................................................377
字符串類型.....................................................................................................377
數值數據類型..................................................................................................378
二進制數據類型.....................................................................................................378
日期數據類型.........................................................................................................378
邏輯數據類型.........................................................................................................378
ROWID...........................................................................................................379
PL/SQL 塊的結構...................................................................................................379
注釋.......................................................................................................................380
DECLARE 部分......................................................................................................380
變量聲明.........................................................................................................380
常量定義.........................................................................................................381
指針定義.........................................................................................................381
%TYPE 屬性...................................................................................................382
%ROWTYPE 屬性...........................................................................................382
%ROWCOUNT 屬性........................................................................................383
Procdure 部分.........................................................................................................383
BEGIN … … END..............................................................................................383
指針控制命令..................................................................................................384
條件語句.........................................................................................................386
LOOPS 循環....................................................................................................387
EXCEPTION 部分..................................................................................................390
激活EXCEPTION 異常.............................................................................390
異常的處理.....................................................................................................391
將輸入返回給用戶..................................................................................................392
在PL/SQL 中的事務控制........................................................................................393
讓所有的事在一起工作....................................................................................394
示例表及數據..................................................................................................394
一個簡單的PL/SQL 語句塊.............................................................................395
又一個程序.....................................................................................................398
存儲過程包和觸發機制.......................................................................................403
總結.......................................................................................................................406
問與答...................................................................................................................407
校練場...................................................................................................................407
練習.......................................................................................................................407
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第19 天TRANSACT-SQL 簡介............................................................................................408
目標.......................................................................................................................408
TRANSACT-SQL 概貌............................................................................................408
對ANSI SQL 的擴展..............................................................................................408
誰需要使用TRANSACT-SQL..........................................................................409
TRANSACT-SQL 的基本組件..........................................................................409
數據類型................................................................................................................409
使用TRANSACT-SQL 來訪問數據庫......................................................................411
BASEBALL 數據庫.........................................................................................411
定義局部變量..................................................................................................414
定義全局變量..................................................................................................414
使用變量.........................................................................................................415
PRINT 命令....................................................................................................417
流控制...................................................................................................................417
BEGIN … … END 語句......................................................................................418
IF … … ELSE 語句............................................................................................418
EXIST 條件.....................................................................................................421
WHILE 循環....................................................................................................422
使用WHILE 循環在表中翻閱..........................................................................424
TRANSACT-SQL 中的通配符.................................................................................426
使用COMPUTE 來生成摘要報告............................................................................426
日期轉換................................................................................................................427
SQL SERVER 的診斷工具— — SET 命令..................................................................427
總結.......................................................................................................................428
問與答...................................................................................................................428
校練場...................................................................................................................429
練習.......................................................................................................................429
第20 天SQL*PLUS .............................................................................................................430
目標.......................................................................................................................430
簡介.......................................................................................................................430
SQL*PLUS 緩存.....................................................................................................430
DESCRIBE 命令.....................................................................................................435
SHOW 命令............................................................................................................436
文件命令................................................................................................................438
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SAVE GET EDIT 命令................................................................................438
運行一個文件..................................................................................................439
查詢的假脫機輸出...........................................................................................440
SET 命令...............................................................................................................442
LOGIN.SQL 文件...................................................................................................445
CLEAR 命令..........................................................................................................446
將你的輸出格式化..................................................................................................446
TTITLE 與BTITLE..........................................................................................446
格式化列COLUMN HEADING FORMAT ..............................................447
報表與分類匯總.....................................................................................................449
BREAK ON.....................................................................................................449
COMPUTE......................................................................................................450
在SQL*PLUS 中使用變量......................................................................................453
DEFINE ..........................................................................................................454
ACCEPT .........................................................................................................455
NEW_VALUE..................................................................................................457
DUAL 表........................................................................................................458
DECODE 函數.................................................................................................459
日期轉換................................................................................................................462
運行一系列的SQL 文件.........................................................................................465
在你的SQL 腳本中加入注釋..................................................................................466
高級報表................................................................................................................467
總結.......................................................................................................................469
問與答...................................................................................................................469
校練場...................................................................................................................469
練習.......................................................................................................................470
第21 天常見的SQL 錯誤及解決方法..................................................................................471
目標...................................................................................................................471
介紹.......................................................................................................................471
常見的錯誤............................................................................................................471
Table or View Does Not Exist.............................................................................471
Invalid Username or Password ...........................................................................472
FROM Keyword Not Specified...........................................................................473
Group Function Is Not Allowed Here ..................................................................474
Invalid Column Name........................................................................................475
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Missing Keyword .............................................................................................475
Missing Left Parenthesis ....................................................................................476
Missing Right Parenthesis ..................................................................................477
Missing Comma................................................................................................478
Column Ambiguously Defined ...........................................................................478
Not Enough Arguments for Function...................................................................480
Not Enough Values............................................................................................481
Integrity Constraint Violated--Parent Key Not Found ............................................482
Oracle Not Available .........................................................................................483
Inserted Value Too Large for Column ..................................................................483
TNS:listener Could Not Resolve SID Given in Connect Descriptor .........................484
Insufficient Privileges During Grants...................................................................484
Escape Character in Your Statement--Invalid Character .........................................485
Cannot Create Operating System File ..................................................................485
Common Logical Mistakes.................................................................................485
Using Reserved Words in Your SQL statement .....................................................486
The Use of DISTINCT When Selecting Multiple Columns.....................................487
Dropping an Unqualified Table ...........................................................................487
The Use of Public Synonyms in a Multischema Database.......................................488
The Dreaded Cartesian Product ..........................................................................488
Failure to Enforce File System Structure Conventions ...........................................489
Allowing Large Tables to Take Default Storage Parameters....................................489
Placing Objects in the System Tablespace............................................................490
Failure to Compress Large Backup Files ..............................................................491
Failure to Budget System Resources ...................................................................491
Preventing Problems with Your Data...................................................................491
Searching for Duplicate Records in Your Database................................................491
總結...................................................................................................................491
校練場...................................................................................................................492
練習.......................................................................................................................492
第三周回顧............................................................................................................................494
附件A 在SQL 中的常見術語...............................................................................................495
ALTER DATABASE.........................................................................................495
ALTER USER..................................................................................................495
BEGIN TRANSACTION ..................................................................................495
CLOSE CURSOR.............................................................................................495
COMMIT TRANSACTION...............................................................................496
CREATE DATABASE.......................................................................................496
CREATE INDEX..............................................................................................496
CREATE PROCEDURE....................................................................................496
CREATE TABLE..............................................................................................497
CREATE TRIGGER..........................................................................................497
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CREATE USER................................................................................................497
CREATE VIEW................................................................................................497
DEALLOCATE CURSOR.................................................................................498
DROP DATABASE...........................................................................................498
DROP INDEX..................................................................................................498
DROP PROCEDURE........................................................................................498
DROP TABLE..................................................................................................498
DROP TRIGGER .............................................................................................499
DROP VIEW....................................................................................................499
EXECUTE.......................................................................................................499
FETCH............................................................................................................499
FROM.............................................................................................................499
GRANT...........................................................................................................500
GROUP BY.....................................................................................................500
HAVING..........................................................................................................500
INTERSECT....................................................................................................500
ORDER BY.....................................................................................................500
ROLLBACK TRANSACTION ..........................................................................500
REVOKE.........................................................................................................500
SELECT..........................................................................................................501
SET TRANSACTION.......................................................................................501
UNION............................................................................................................501
WHERE..........................................................................................................501
*.....................................................................................................................501
附件B 在第14 天中的C++源代碼清單................................................................................502
附件 C 第14 天中的Delphi 源代碼清單...............................................................................521
附件D 參考內容..................................................................................................................524
書..........................................................................................................................524
Developing Sybase Applications ..................................................................524
Sybase Developer's Guide ...........................................................................524
Microsoft SQL Server 6.5 Unleashed, 2E ......................................................524
Teach Yourself Delphi in 21 Days ................................................................524
Delphi Developer's Guide ...........................................................................524
Delphi Programming Unleashed ..................................................................525
Essential Oracle 7.2 ...................................................................................525
Developing Personal Oracle7 for Windows 95 Applications ............................525
Teach Yourself C++ Programming in 21 Days ...............................................525
Teach Yourself Tansact-SQL in 21 Days .......................................................525
Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days ............................................................525
雜志...................................................................................................................526
DBMS.............................................................................................................526
Oracle Magazine...............................................................................................526
SQL 21 日自學通(V1.0) 翻譯人笨豬
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SQL 的互聯網資源.................................................................................................526
附件E ACSLL 碼表.............................................................................................................527
附件F 問題與練習答案........................................................................................................533
第一天SQL 簡介.................................................................................................533
問題答案.........................................................................................................533
練習答案.........................................................................................................533
第二天查詢— — SELECT 語句的使用..................................................................533
問題答案.........................................................................................................533
練習答案.........................................................................................................534
第三天表達式條件語句與運算.........................................................................535
問題答案.........................................................................................................535
練習答案.........................................................................................................535
第四天函數對獲得數據的進一步處理...............................................................536
問題答案.........................................................................................................536
練習答案.........................................................................................................537
第五天SQL 中的子句..........................................................................................538
問題答案.........................................................................................................538
練習答案.........................................................................................................538
第六天表的聯接..................................................................................................540
問題答案.........................................................................................................540
練習答案.........................................................................................................541
第7 天子查詢內嵌的SELECT 語句............................................................542
問題答案.........................................................................................................542
練習答案.........................................................................................................544
第八天操作數據..................................................................................................544
問題答案.........................................................................................................544
練習答案.........................................................................................................546
第九天創建和操作表...........................................................................................546
問題答案.........................................................................................................546
練習答案.........................................................................................................548
第10 天創建視圖和索引.......................................................................................549
問題答案.........................................................................................................549
練習答案.....................................................................................................550
第11 天事務處理控制.........................................................................................550
問題答案.........................................................................................................550
練習答案.........................................................................................................551
第12 天數據庫安全............................................................................................552
SQL 21 日自學通(V1.0) 翻譯人笨豬
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問題答案.........................................................................................................552
練習答案.........................................................................................................552
第13 天高級 SQL.................................................................................................553
問題答案.........................................................................................................553
練習答案.........................................................................................................553
第14 天動態使用SQL ........................................................................................554
問題答案.........................................................................................................554
練習答案.........................................................................................................554
第15 天對SQL 語句優化以提高其性能...............................................................555
問題答案.........................................................................................................555
練習答案.........................................................................................................555
第16 天用視圖從數據字典中獲得信息................................................................557
問題答案.........................................................................................................557
練習答案.........................................................................................................557
第17 天使用SQL 來生成SQL 語句....................................................................558
問題答案.........................................................................................................558
練習答案.........................................................................................................560
第18 天PL/SQL 簡介..........................................................................................561
問題答案.........................................................................................................561
練習答案.........................................................................................................561
第19 天TRANSACT-SQL 簡介............................................................................562
問題答案...........................
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